PFAS Remediation

Former DoD Facility - Michigan


One of Bay West’s key PFAS projects involves a remediation of a former fire training area at a former DoD facility in Michigan. Firefighting constituents, including aqueous film-forming foam that contained PFOA and PFOS, were used to extinguish fires during training activities at the site. Concentrations of PFOA and PFOS at the site have been over 100,000 nanograms per liter (ng/L) near the source area. The fire training pit is located in an upland area of the site upgradient of a wetland area.

Project Scope

 PFOA/PFOS Groundwater and media Sampling
 Groundwater Modeling
 Contaminant Fate and Transport Analysis
 Purge Well Field Capture Analysis
 Pump and Treat System Optimization, Operation and Maintenance
 Pump and Treat System Discharge Permit Compliance Sampling
 Preparation and Submittal of Daily and Monthly Discharge Monitoring Reports
 Evaluation of Multiple LGAC formulations
 Pilot Testing of Innovative Treatment Technologies
 Preparation of Annual Remedial Action Operation Reports
 Meeting Agenda and Presentation Development

Site Background

A liquid granulated activated carbon (LGAC) groundwater pump and treat (P&T) system was designed/constructed in 2014 to address on-site PFOA and PFOS concentrations exceeding the 2009 Provisional Health Advisory Values (HAV) of 400 and 200 ng/L, respectively, to achieve Michigan non-acute groundwater surface water interface (GSI) standards of 20 ng/L PFOS and 40 ng/L PFOA. At the time of the FT-02 treatment system design and installation, much was unknown about PFOA and PFOS plume behavior, and/or the full-scale LGAC treatment of PFAS. Bay West has optimized, operated and maintained this system since 2016.


Bay West’s executed a pilot study to evaluate the effectiveness of Total Oxidizable Precursor (TOP) assay to gain insight into the total mass of PFAS present and the potential for additional bio-production of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (e.g. PFOA) from precursors not detectible by the more common PFAS analytical 537 method. The pilot study evaluated whether enzyme coupling with GAC and RemBind can cost-effectively extend the PFOS and PFOA operating life of the GAC units. Resin absorption, reverse osmosis treatment alternatives, and a complete GAC replacement were evaluated. Our pilot study results and recommendations were provided to the customer for system optimization opportunities.

Stakeholder and Public Interaction

Bay West supports the day-to-day activities at the site including coordinating project activities and meetings, arranging for site visits and tours, and acting as the on-site client representative. Bay West supports the DoD in meetings, where the status of restoration activities is reported to the project stakeholders and regulators. Since the system was constructed, PFOA and PFOS regulatory criteria are now orders of magnitude lower. Bay West compiles data and develops meeting agendas and presentations to communicate restoration activities to the project stakeholders and regulators. Bay West also arranges the venue for the meetings and takes meeting minutes to document the topics discussed. The on-site staff also perform routine site inspections and property owner interviews to verify that the land use controls are in compliance.

Related Projects

Former Superior Plating Superfund Site

Bay West was hired by the MPCA to provide additional technical support and third-party oversight. We have performed a wide variety of environmental activities for the MPCA at this site.

Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

Bay West supported cleanup following the Hurricanes Katrina/Rita disasters in Texas/Louisiana by providing more than a dozen task force leaders/supervisors to serve as EPA representatives on cleanup crews during removal of hazardous waste/debris.

Solvent Plume, St. Louis Park, MN

Bay West was a subcontractor to Weston Solutions as an EPA Region 5 START contractor assisting with EPA activities in Minnesota.

Duluth Brownfield Inventory Assessment

The City of Duluth retained Bay West to complete Limited Area-Wide Brownfield Inventories (AWBIs) in three select areas of the St. Louis River Corridor. These consisted of the following (collectively, the Study Areas): Gary-New Duluth, the Western Port Area Neighborhood (WPAN), and Lincoln Park/Rice’s Point.

Engineering and Environmental Teaming

We frequently team with engineering firms, both locally and on a national scale, that provide services we do not self-perform and/or that provide additional resources to develop cost-competitive, value-based solutions for our customers

Urban Infill – Jay Street Gas Holder

The property known as the Jay Street Gas Holder is currently owned by the City of Duluth, which plans to redevelop the property for residential uses.

PFAS Remediation: Former DoD Facility

Former DoD Facility PFAS Central Treatment System

Military Munitions Response Program

Bay West provided on-call UXO Construction Support services to Army construction projects at Fort Lewis as part of the Army’s program to deconstruct, construct, and upgrade its facilities at Fort Lewis.

Twin Cities Army Ammunition Plant (TCAAP), Arden Hills, MN

Bay West and our key staff have played an integral role at TCAAP over that past 20 years as the investigation and remediation contractor on several of the most high-profile waste disposal sites on the property, the redevelopment consultant for a development firm, and the third-party consultant for Ramsey County, providing technical expertise and oversight of cleanup activities.

Seymour Johnson AFB, Goldsboro, NC

In support of the US Air Force’s Performance-Based Remediation initiative, Bay West developed and executed closure/exit strategies for 16 Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) sites under this fixed-price, performance-based contract.

Eglin AFB, Fort Walton Beach, FL

Bay West performs munitions investigation and removal actions at Eglin AFB, which has historically conducted munitions development, testing and training.

Pacific Air Force Sites (PACAF), AK

Bay West performed Supplemental CSE Phase I and Phase II Investigations at eight PACAF facilities in Alaska (total of 1,813 acres within 47 Munitions Response Areas [MRAs]).

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Paul Raymaker, PG

Paul Raymaker, PG

Project Manager

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